Network Communication

With the advent of globalization, the world has become a close knitted web; hence, the exchange of information has become easy. Network and data communication have changed the manner in which the businesses perform their daily tasks. Now is the time when technology has changed the world scenario. Be it start ups or government offices, everything is digitalized.
Network communication is an important area of computer awareness section for various government examinations. This article aims to give you useful insights about the network communication and its classification to help ace your performance in Bank PO/ Clerical Examinations.
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What is a Computer Network?
Computer Network is a set of computers and devices connected together by communication channels that facilitate communication and sharing of resources among users. The various computers on a network are called nodes. Internet can be considered as the basic example of a computer network.
Simply stating, A network is a multipurpose connection, which allows a single computer to do more work.
Types of Communication Networks:
Local Area network (LAN):
  • It is a combination of programs and equipment that connect a number of personal computers.
  • It serves a local area and supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building, a school or a home.
  • Feasible for the owning organization to install high quality, high-speed communication links interconnecting nodes.
  • Data transmission speeds are one to 100 megabits per second.
  • Useful for sharing resources like files, printers, games or other applications.
LAN Topologies:
  • Ring:  It joins a set of attachment units together of point-to-point connections between each unit. Each attachment unit, in turn, interfaces to one or more computers or computing devices. Information flows between attachment units in a single direction, thus forming a ring network. It is appropriate only in small networks.
  • Star:  Each computer is connected on a point to-point link to a central device called a Hub. The hub acts as the LAN traffic manager, setting up communication paths between two devices seeking to exchange information.
  • Bus:  A set of computers or devices connected to a common, linear connection is known as Bus Topology.  Information is transmitted over the distance of the network. Each computer can pick up its intended information. The main bus line might break off into additional linear links with multiple attachments.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):
  • It interconnects computer resources with users in a larger region or a geographic area.
  • Covers area larger area than LAN but smaller area than MAN.
  • It can be a single cable or connects a number of LANs into a larger network.
  • Any public company or a private company can have a hold on it and operate it.
Wide Area Network (WAN):
  • Collection of LANs is called WAN.
  • Spans a large geographic area, such as a state, a province or a country.
  • Connect multiple smaller networks, such as LANs or Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs).
  • Some segments of the Internet, like VPN-based extranets, are also WANs.
  • WANs are corporate or research networks that utilize leased lines.
  • WANs utilize different and a good deal of expensive networking equipment than do LANs.
  • Key technologies often found in WANs include SONET, Frame Relay and ATM.
  • PSTN or Satellite Links are the communication medium used by WAN.
  • WAN operates on low data rates.
Networking: Frequently asked terms/topics
Analog & Digital Signals; Modulation: Amplitude, Frequency, Phase; MODEM; Communication Media; Local Area Network (LAN); Metropolitan Area Network (MAN); Wide Area Network (WAN); Topology: Star, Bus, Ring, Mesh, Hybrid; Peer to Peer Architecture; Client Server Architecture; Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model; Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Model; Cryptography; Network Components: Network Interface Card (NIC), Bridges, Hubs, Repeaters, Switches, Routers, Brouters, Gateways; Multiplexing.
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