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Used to store data records Well-defined data structures that contain related data organized in convenient records of data items. Each data file has two additional types of records: Header record and trailer record. Header records contain file identification information and keep different groups of records in a file. Trailer records contain codes to mark the end of a set of data records.
Collection of records pertaining to one of the main subjects of an information system, such as customers, employees, products and vendors.
Collection of transaction records. The data in transaction files is used to update the master files, which contain the data about the subjects of the organization
Used to store programs in different languages provided by different software vendors. These files have different extensions e.g. a program file in 'C' Language has extension.c
Store compiled programs written in a language. These files contain the machine code, e.g. after compilation, C compiler creates a file having extension .obj.
Store ready to execute programs. These files may have the extension .exe, .com or .bat. These programs can be directly executed from the command Prompt.
Simple files containing simple text. Text files can be created using any text editor or line editor, e.g. text files can be created using Notepad editor provided by MS-Windows.
Contain formatted text. They also contain some commands and symbols to format the text. These can be created using MS-WORD having extension .doc.
Work file, Audit file Backup file
exhibit a branching structure, with information arranged into sets and sub-sets; getting to a particular piece of data may require going through several vertically ordered files.
offer many more direct connections between files, but, similar to hierarchies, the links are predefined and are difficult to change or adjust.
self contained entities (or objects) together. Objects can be text, a picture, a piece of film or any item that can be individually selected and manipulated. These are useful for organizing large amounts of disparate information.
Spreads information across different tables while maintaining links between them. A relational database stores facts in tables called relations.
Large amount of data can be stored Examples in commercial applications are inventory data, personnel data, etc.
The unique data field in a table is assigned a primary key. The primary key helps in the identification of data. It also checks for duplicates within the same table, reducing data redundancy. There are tables, which have a secondary key. The secondary key is also called 'foreign key'. The secondary key refers to the primary key of another table, thus establishing a relationship between the two tables.
The data is stored in the form of tables. The tables consist of rows and columns. The primary and secondary keys help to eliminate data redundancy, thus enabling systematic storage of data.
The table schema can be changed and it is not platform dependent. The tables in the system can be edited to add new columns and rows without hampering the applications that depend on that particular database.
It can be used with various languages and on various platforms
The data in two or more tables can be integrated into a single table. This enables to reduce the size of the database and helps in easy retrieval of data.
The database can be used simultaneously by a number of users. Various users can retrieve the same data simultaneously. The data in the database can also be modified, based on the privileges assigned to users.
Database management systems help to keep the data secured.
Different privileges can be given to different users. Some users, for example, can edit the database, but are not allowed to delete the contents of the database.
A database user can view only the abstract form of data; it exists in a user-friendly format.
It ensures a consistent view of data to every user. It includes the accuracy, validity and integrity of related data. The data in the database must satisfy certain consistency constraints. When the database is updated, these constraints are checked by the database systems.
Data processing systems characteristically maneuver raw data into information.
IT Miscellaneous: Frequently Asked Terms/Topics