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Network Communication

It is a collection of computers and devices connected by communications channels that facilitate communication and sharing of resources among users. Networks may be classified as:

     Local Area network (LAN):

  •      Combination of programs and equipment that connect a number of personal computers
  •     It serves a local area and supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other           such as in an office building, a school or a home.
  •      Feasible for the owning organization to install high quality, high-speed communication links interconnecting nodes.
  •      Data transmission speeds are one to 100 megabits per second.
  •      Useful for sharing resources like files, printers, games or other applications.

     Wide Area Network (WAN):

  •      Collection of LANs
  •      Spans a large geographic area, such as a state, a province or a country
  •      Connect multiple smaller networks, such as LANs or Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs).
  •      Some segments of the Internet, like VPN-based extranets, are also WANs
  •      WANs are corporate or research networks that utilize leased lines
  •      WANs utilize different and a good deal of expensive networking equipment than do LANs.
  •      Key technologies often found in WANs include SONET, Frame Relay and ATM.

     LAN Topologies:

  •      Ring:

    Joins a set of attachment units together of point-to-point connections between each unit Each attachment unit, in turn, interfaces to one or more computers or computing devices Information flows between attachment units in a single direction, thus forming a ring network Appropriate only in small networks

  •      Star:

    Each computer is connected on a point to-point link to a central device called a Hub. The hub acts as the LAN traffic manager, setting up communication paths between two devices seeking to exchange information.

  •      Bus:

    A set of computers or devices connected to a common, linear connection Information is transmitted over the distance of the network Each computer can pick up its intended information Links from the main bus line might break off into additional linear links with multiple attachments

Networking: Frequently asked terms/topics

Analog & Digital Signals; Modulation: Amplitude, Frequency, Phase; MODEM; Communication Media; Local Area Network (LAN); Metropolitan Area Network (MAN); Wide Area Network (WAN); Topology: Star, Bus, Ring, Mesh, Hybrid; Peer to Peer Architecture; Client Server Architecture; Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model; Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Model; Cryptography; Network Components: Network Interface Card (NIC), Bridges, Hubs, Repeaters, Switches, Routers, Brouters, Gateways; Multiplexing;
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